Sleep and Movement Disorders
If, for example, medications are responsible for the PLMD, alternative medications may be considered. There are several medications available to treat PLMD. They work by reducing or eliminating the limb movements or by enabling the person to sleep through the movements.
Primary PLMD may be chronic in nature, meaning people with the condition will have it for life. However, they often experience periods of remission where symptoms cease, although relapses can occur from time to time. Secondary PLMD can be resolved by treating the underlying medical condition or changing medications.
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Aurora, R. Rosenberg, R. The Treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults—an update for Practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses. Sleep , 35 8 , — Durmer, J. Restless legs syndrome, periodic leg movements, and periodic limb movement disorder in children [Abstract]. Pediatric Clinics of North America , 58 3 , Manconi, M. When gender matters: restless legs syndrome. Sleep Medicine Reviews , 16 4 , Periodic limb movements in sleep. MLA Leonard, Jayne. MediLexicon, Intl.
APA Leonard, J.
Movement Disorders of Sleep and Sleep-disordered Breathing
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By Jayne Leonard. Causes and risk factors Symptoms and complications Diagnosis Treatment and coping.
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A new observational study finds that increasing daily nut consumption is associated with a lower risk of gradual weight gain and obesity. Potentially injurious behaviors can arise in sleep, including punching, kicking, screaming, grasping, or running.
Video monitoring should demonstrate that abnormal movements correspond with periods of excessive EMG signal.
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The pathophysiology of RBD has not been precisely delineated, but multiple brain areas are thought to be involved, including the locus coeruleus in the pons, nuclei in the medial medulla, and striatal dopaminergic neurons. Excessive daytime sleepiness is not usually a common complaint unless RBD is associated with narcolepsy.
Pharmacological treatment is indicated when parasomnias occur frequently or result in physical injury. Various parasomnias occur during slow-wave non-REM sleep, usually in the first part of the night. These include confusional arousals, somnambulism sleep walking , and night terrors. Confusional arousals are commonly seen in children 14 They consist of arousals from sleep during which the patient is disoriented and exhibits inappropriate behavior for several minutes. Patients themselves rarely remember the events.
It is thought to be due to a partial intrusion of wakefulness into non-REM sleep, and can be exacerbated by sleep deprivation, shift work, alcohol, or central nervous system depressant drugs. In severe cases, treatment may include benzodiazepines, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants. Somnambulism consists of walking and other complex motor behaviors that occur while the patient is still in slow-wave sleep with incomplete awakening on EEG.
Night terrors are also more common in children and subside with age. They are characterized by the sudden onset of out-of-sleep panic and fearful behaviors such as screaming, associated with increased autonomic activation with diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnea, flushing, and mydriasis. Patients do not remember the events, and typically no treatment is necessary. Patients with RLS describe unpleasant leg sensations crawling, tingling, cramping, pain during recumbency prior to falling asleep. PLMD is characterized by bilateral limb movements in sleep during the first half of the night.
In fact, RLS patients can also exhibit periodic limb movements when awake and may be unable to keep their legs immobile. RLS can be idiopathic or secondary to an underlying medical condition such as pregnancy, iron or folate deficiency, peripheral neuropathy, radiculopathy, or rheumatoid arthritis. Levodopa is also efficacious, but its use is limited by a phenomenon called augmentation, in which RLS symptoms become more severe and occur earlier in the day in a subset of patients, particularly among those with iron deficiency. In conclusion, sleep disorders have the potential to affect myriad aspects of the lives of patients, with physical, social, and psychological consequences.
Therefore, the accurate diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders should be prioritized as a part of routine medical care.
Movement Disorders of Sleep and Sleep-disordered Breathing
Its content should not be considered medical advice, diagnosis or treatment recommendations. Submit to journal Education Zone. Subscribe User Login. Filter Specialty Register Login. Filter specialty. Submit To The Journals. Movement Disorders of Sleep and Sleep-disordered Breathing While sleep disorders are extremely common in the general population, their study represents a relatively new focus of medicine. This article is a brief re Get access to premium content Subscribe today.
Sleep-related movement disorders.
Order reprints Get Permission. Parasomnias Parasomnias are defined as undesirable behaviors or experiences that are normally associated with wakefulness, which instead occur during sleep. Related Articles Movement Disorders. Movement Disorders. In Partnership. Submit to the Journals.